A Beginner’s Guide to Human Rights Jargon

Still from 'Waiting For The Guards ' showing simulated torture. 'Waiting For The Guards ' is a film produced for AIUK as part of a campaign against the CIA's detention and interrogation programme which AI believes amounts to torture and degrading treatment contravening  Article 3 of the Third Geneva Convention – which prohibits the humiliating or degrading treatment of prisoners of war. Jiva Parthipan, a Sri Lankan performance artist assumes a stress position from one of the interrogation techniques.

Baffled by technical human rights terms and precise legal definitions? You’re not alone. Here’s a quick glossary of some of the most troublesome words and phrases.

Commute means to replace a punishment, usually a death sentence, with a less severe one. For example, Amnesty called for the USA to commute to time served the 35-year jail sentence of whistleblower Chelsea Manning, who had been arrested after leaking classified government material.

Crimes against humanity:
When certain acts – including murder, torture and slavery – form part of a widespread attack on a civilian population by a state or organization. Unlike war crimes, they can take place at times of peace as well as during conflict. The Rwandan genocide of 1994 is one example of a crime against humanity.

Extrajudicial executions:
Unlawful killings ordered by a government, or committed with its knowledge and support. They can be carried out by the military, police, or by civilians working with government forces. For example, Hamas forces in Gaza committed serious human rights abuses, including extrajudicial executions, torture and abductions, during the 2014 Gaza/Israel conflict.


Freedom of expression:
The right to seek, receive and share information and ideas, without fear or interference. It is closely linked with freedom of association (the right to meet with anyone you choose, for example, to form and join clubs, societies or trade unions) and the right to take part in a peaceful assembly, such as a demonstration or public meeting.

Immunity (from prosecution):
Allows an accused person to avoid prosecution for a crime because of their job or office. Amnesty International is opposed to immunity. For example, Amnesty has called for the rejection of immunity in the Central African Republic so that people who committed crimes during conflict there are brought to justice.

Activists in masks at an Amnesty International rally in Manila calling for an end to torture and human rights violations in the Philippines (Photo Credit: Jes Aznar/AFP/Getty Images).

Impunity is when people who have committed crimes avoid punishment. For example, there is a‘culture of impunity’ among police in the Philippines, who are able to torture people without fear of being punished. Amnesty calls for these people to be tried and sentenced fairly, according to the law.

Dr Mohammed al-Roken

Prisoner of conscience:
prisoner of conscience is someone who is imprisoned because of who they are (sexual orientation, ethnic, national or social origin, language, birth, color, sex or economic status) or their religious, political or other beliefs, and who hasn’t used or advocated violence. For example, Dr Mohammed al-Roken is a current prisoner of conscience in the United Arab Emirates, jailed for 10 years following a deeply unfair trial.


War crimes:
War crimes are serious crimes committed during armed conflicts, which could include murdering prisoners of war, killing hostages, torture and destroying towns and villages. A recent example is in the Ukraine, where there is overwhelming evidence of ongoing war crimes, including torture and summary killings of prisoners.

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8 thoughts on “A Beginner’s Guide to Human Rights Jargon

  1. Guide to Human Rights Jargon great article, I just read the article and found it really informative.
    War only happened when we never care about human rights and you stated it greatly here.A prisoner of conscience is someone who is imprisoned because of who they are their religious, political or other beliefs, and who hasn’t used or advocated violence.

  2. My post pertains to information I've regarding the war on terror; I've learned that it is the duty of the U.S. to continue to fight against terrorism to protect human rights. This is my position on the ongoing fight against ISIS groups. The Fight Against Terrorism to Protect Human Rights
    I believe the United States (U.S.) must continue to stand up against terrorism to help protect the human rights of those living in unstable countries. The U.S. supports by providing military protection to help stabilize an environment while simultaneously teaching and training the natives to protect themselves longterm. I feel it is extremely important for the U.S. to continue to support those in need, but refrain from getting caught up in an ongoing war that is not an immediate threat to America. Helping other countries establish law and order will also help protect the U.S. from growing terrorists threats. The overall protection of human rights depends on creating a solid state structure. Extremist groups allowed to organize and terrorize states can jeopardize the balance of authority and basic human rights. It is the responsibility of all leaders to address violations and hold guilty parties accountable within legal perimeters.

  3. Good guide on human rights. These are the basics and we all should know about these.
    The first things comes in my mind when someone talking about human rights is justice. Where all people get justice nobody can beat them.

  4. Human rights have become more of a joke these days as people and government have been conducting and implementing laws to jeopardize the very right that had been given to the people by their constitution. It's necessary that we do fight for our rights before it becomes too late. https://joyjolt.com/

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